Genetic geneticists use DNA tests to solve family history mysteries and close cold cases. They utilize autosomal, Y mitochondrial (mtDNA) tests.
MtDNA is present in the mitochondria of cells. Females are the only ones who can pass on their DNA on to their offspring. YDNA can be passed on to males from their fathers.
Role of DNA in Ancestral Roots
In the most commonly used form, genetic genealogy involves individuals testing their DNA and doing traditional research on genealogy in search of lost family members. It has become more popular recently due to the advancement of DNA testing technologies and the accessibility of test at-home kits.
Using publicly available DNA databases that are publicly accessible, crime evidence from a suspect who is not known suspect may be uploaded to the database and the results compared to profiles of other suspects. If a match is found and confirmed, the match will be able to identify which branch of the family tree this person belonged to based on their shared DNA.
The forensic DNA testing has been successful in the identification of a variety of unknown murders, rapes, and other crimes of violence. The test is also used to locate missing persons as well as bring closure to family members.
Genetic Genealogy and DNA Testing
Genetic genealogy, a method of combining DNA analysis with traditional genetic and historical research could help in breaking down barriers for researchers who are conducting family history research. For forensic investigators they can use tools to identify missing persons and solve mysteries.
The forensic applications of genetic genealogy originated from the widespread direct-to-consumer DNA testing which took off a decade ago, when companies like 23andMe and Ancestry offered customers an opportunity to test their DNA in tubes and be provided with information regarding their ethnicity, health risks and connections to family members.
This same technique can be used in a forensic setting to compare crime scene DNA with information in databases available to the public, for example, GEDmatch. A close genetic match will give a good starting point to investigators to build the family tree.
Y DNA and Paternal Genealogy
The males have very distinct DNA than women, so the Y-DNA test can show their direct paternal lineage dating back to thousands or hundreds of years. The tests for Y-DNA look at several repetitive sequences known as STR markers located on the Y chromosome. These marker values are unique to each male and can be utilized in surname or project on geography to evaluate those of other men. Sometimes, (harmless) modifications can assist in the identification of specific branches.
As only genetic males possess a Y chromosome, they’re the only ones who can take a Y-DNA test. However, females who wish to research their paternal family history could sponsor their father aunt or uncle paternal to undergo the Y-DNA test. A lot of companies that offer the test provide an Family Finder feature in their test results. It can help connect you with living relatives who belong to the same paternal haplogroup.
mtDNA in Maternal Ancestry
Maternal lineage DNA that is analysed by mtDNA tests, can identify female connections to family members which aren’t found by paternal testing or any other autosomal DNA tests. The mtDNA content of people living today remains constant, therefore tests based on mtDNA can offer accurate genetic markers to trace maternal ancestral lines.
Up until recently, researches thought that mtDNA could be transferred into daughters through the processes that occur within the egg cells, which engulfed paternal mitochondria after sperm penetrated the egg. Now, however, they believe that mtDNA could actually transfer from mother to daughter without the need for a penetrating event.
Many companies provide mtDNA testing. Certain, such as 23andMe examine only the HVR1 and HVR2 regions of mtDNA other companies, like Family Tree DNA, xet nghiem adn tai ha noi test for the entire mtDNA sequence and offer cousin match. The tests will help you identify your haplogroup’s maternal origin and discover the regions of the world from which the ancestors of your family came.
Autosomal DNA Testing for Family Connections
DNA testing is a great way to help the individual to discover his or her genetic connections to several ancestral communities. Autosomal DNA tests may uncover potential relatives that reside on the paternal or maternal side on the genealogy tree.
Apart from locating distant relatives, these tests can also give you a better understanding of the geographical regions where your ancestors’ origins are. The regions that are identified by the frequencies of specific DNA mutations found in populations of reference across the globe.
Another common use for DNA testing is to discover unknown human remains. The investigators extract DNA taken from crime scene evidence and then match it to public DNA databases, such as GEDmatch. If the match is successful, it can aid investigators in constructing a family tree and identify the individual suspect. The analysis of the themes revealed that the participants’ ideas of self-identity were often questioned through unexpected DNA test results. In particular, the discovery of kinship between biological relatives prompted revision of gender, race and familial identities.